The Effect of Hormones

(Author: Professor Dr. Joachim Schindler)

  1. Introduction
  2. How does an individual cell know what to do?
  2.1. Differentiation: How cells develop into specialists
  2.2. Protein synthesis: From a gene to a cellular product?
  2.3. Universal structures: Proteins and their spectacular variety of forms
  2.4. Molecular messages: ... to whom it may concern
  3. When is a hormone a hormone, and when is a hormone actually no hormone at all?
  3.1 Definition: What is a hormone effect?
  3.2 Control functions: When do hormones appear as a signal?
  3.3 Classical Regulatory Cycle: How blood sugar levels are regulated
  3.4 Hormonal Feedback: How is the female cycle regulated?
  3.5 Hormonal Contraception: How the cycle is »switched off«
  3.6 Substitution Therapy: Oestrogens with purely vitalising functions
  4. What equips the cells to receive the messages directed towards them?
  4.1. Relay function: Receptors are switched to »green« by hormones
  4.2. Cell Antennae: Receptors in the front lines
  4.3. Steroid Hormone-Receptors: The direct connection to hereditary information
  4.4. Band Width: Receptors register an entire spectrum of signals
  5. How do hormones regulate biological activity?
  5.1. Deactivation: Blood modifies proteohormones
  5.2. Steroid Metabolism: How cells produce their own hormones
  5.3. Biological Availability: Released and bonded steroid hormones
  6. Growth and Death as hormone dependent genetic programmes
  6.1. Cell cycle: Hormones influence the division frequency of cells
  6.2. Death of a Cell: Suicide programmes are important for survival
  7. What is the role of hormones in the central nervous system?
  7.1. Neurosteroids: Balm for the mind
  7.2. Plasticity: Sexual steroids »shape« the brain
  8. Progesterone helps sperm become more lively

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Gerhard Leyendecker