Ferticon  

Newsletter

Table of Contents

Back    Next

15.09.2003
 
Newsletter Nr. 23
 
  1. A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer.
  2. > The impact of assisted hatching on live birth rates and outcomes of assisted conception: a systematic review
  3. Risk of benign gynaecological diseases and hormonal disorders according to responsiveness to ovarian stimulation in IVF: a follow-up study of 8714 women
  4. Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility

1. A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer.

Although numerous studies have shown that the status of the sentinel node is an accurate predictor of the status of the axillary nodes in breast cancer, the efficacy and safety of sentinel-node biopsy require validation. From March 1998 to December 1999, assigned 516 patients were randomly assigned with primary breast cancer in whom the tumor was less than or equal to 2 cm in diameter either to sentinel-node biopsy and total axillary dissection (the axillary-dissection group) or to sentinel-node biopsy followed by axillary dissection only if the sentinel node contained metastases (the sentinel-node group). The number of sentinel nodes found was the same in the two groups. A sentinel node was positive in 83 of the 257 patients in the axillary-dissection group (32.3 percent), and in 92 of the 259 patients in the sentinel-node group (35.5 percent). In the axillary-dissection group, the overall accuracy of the sentinel-node status was 96.9 percent, the sensitivity 91.2 percent, and the specificity 100 percent. There was less pain and better arm mobility in the patients who underwent sentinel-node biopsy only than in those who also underwent axillary dissection. There were 15 events associated with breast cancer in the axillary-dissection group and 10 such events in the sentinel-node group. Among the 167 patients who did not undergo axillary dissection, there were no cases of overt axillary metastasis during follow-up.
CONCLUSION: Sentinel-node biopsy is a safe and accurate method of screening the axillary nodes for metastasis in women with a small breast cancer.

Reference

Veronesi U, Paganelli G, Viale G, Luini A, Zurrida S, Galimberti V, Intra M, Veronesi P, Robertson C, Maisonneuve P, Renne G, De Cicco C, De Lucia F, Gennari R. A randomized comparison of sentinel-node biopsy with routine axillary dissection in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003 Aug 7;349(6):546-53. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12904519&dopt=Abstract

2. The impact of assisted hatching on live birth rates and outcomes of assisted conception: a systematic review.

During the past decade in the UK, only one in six cycles of assisted conception has resulted successfully in a live birth. Assisted hatching (AH) has been proposed to improve outcome. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials addresses primary outcomes of live birth, clinical pregnancy and embryo implantation. Trials on post-fertilization disruption of the zona pellucida were identified from the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and published bibliographies. Outcomes were analysed using random effects meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, sub-grouping and meta-regression. Of 23 included trials recruiting 2572 women, only six reported live birth data. AH had no significant effect on live birth (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.82-1.78). There was a significant benefit of AH on clinical pregnancy (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.27-2.09), especially in the sub-group of women with previous failure of assisted conception (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.63-3.34). Meta-regression suggested that AH might be more useful in older women. Implantation data were not considered valid for statistical analysis. The methodological quality of included trials was sub-optimal. CONCLUSION: AH probably enhances clinical pregnancy, especially in women with previous failure of assisted conception treatment and in older women; however, trials were of poor quality and so may be biased. Better quality trials reporting live birth are required to confirm any positive effects on the 'take-home-baby rate'.

Reference

Edi-Osagie E, Hooper L, Seif MW. The impact of assisted hatching on live birth rates and outcomes of assisted conception: a systematic review. Hum Reprod. 2003 Sep;18(9):1828-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12923134&dopt=Abstract

3. Risk of benign gynaecological diseases and hormonal disorders according to responsiveness to ovarian stimulation in IVF: a follow-up study of 8714 women.

Over the past decade, attention has been focused increasingly on the long-term health effects of IVF in women. Assuming that hormonal changes due to stimulation regimens for IVF are strongest among 'high' responders, we evaluated whether responsiveness to ovarian stimulation in IVF is predictive of the risk of benign gynaecological disorders >12 months after the last IVF cycle. A nationwide historical cohort study of women who underwent IVF treatment was conducted. After a median time of 4.6 years following the last IVF treatment cycle, 8714 cohort members completed a health survey questionnaire that inquired about reproductive variables and the occurrence and age at onset of specific medical conditions including uterine leiomyoma, surgically removed ovarian cysts and thyroid disorders. Detailed data on cause of subfertility and IVF treatment were collected from the medical records. Women were included in the 'high responders' group when on average >14 oocytes were retrieved per IVF cycle (n = 1562), in the 'normal responders' group when they had a mean number of 4-13 retrieved oocytes (n = 6033), and in the 'low responders' group when they had a mean number of 0-3 retrieved oocytes per cycle (n = 1119). Among women with a high response to ovarian stimulation, we found a borderline significantly decreased risk of uterine leiomyoma [relative risk (RR) = 0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-1.0] and surgically removed ovarian cysts (RR = 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.0) in comparison with 'normal responders'. After OHSS, the age-adjusted RRs were 1.8 (95% CI 0.9-3.8) for having surgically removed ovarian cysts and 1.0 (95% CI 0.4-2.2) for uterine leiomyoma (both not significant).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small number of events observed, highly elevated risks of gynaecological disorders and hormonal diseases in women undergoing IVF treatment can be excluded based on the present data and this follow-up period. Women with a low response to ovarian stimulation tended to have higher risks of benign gynaecological diseases than high responders.

Reference

Klip H, Van Leeuwen FE, Schats R, Burger CW, For The OMEGA Project Group. Risk of benign gynaecological diseases and hormonal disorders according to responsiveness to ovarian stimulation in IVF: a follow-up study of 8714 women. Hum Reprod. 2003 Sep;18(9):1951-1958. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12923156&dopt=Abstract

4. Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility.

The likelihood of spontaneous conception in subsequent cycles is important for a balanced management of infertility. Previous studies on time to pregnancy are mostly retrospective and biased because of exclusion of truly infertile couples. The study aim was to present a non-parametric estimation of cumulative probabilities of conception (CPC) in natural family planning (NFP) users illustrating an ideal of human fertility potential. A total of 346 women was observed who used NFP methods to conceive from their first cycle onwards. The couples practising NFP make optimal use of their fertility potential by timed intercourse. The CPC were estimated for the total group and for couples who finally conceived by calculating Kaplan-Meier survival rates. A total of 310 pregnancies occurred among the 346 women; the remaining 36 women (10.4%) did not conceive. Estimated CPC for the total group (n = 340 women) at one, three, six and 12 cycle(s) were 38, 68, 81 and 92% respectively. For those who finally conceived (truly fertile couples, n = 304 women), the respective pregnancy rates were 42, 75, 88 and 98% respectively. Although the numbers of couples in both groups were similar, the impact of age on time to conception, as judged by the Wilcoxon test, was less in the truly fertile than in the total group.
CONCLUSIONS: Most couples conceive within six cycles with timed intercourse. Thereafter, every second couple is probably either subfertile or infertile. CPC decline with age because heterogeneity in fecundity increases. In the subgroup of truly fertile couples, an age-dependent decline in CPC is statistically less obvious because of high homogeneity, even with advancing age.

Reference

Gnoth C, Godehardt D, Godehardt E, Frank-Herrmann P, Freundl G. Time to pregnancy: results of the German prospective study and impact on the management of infertility. Hum Reprod. 2003 Sep;18(9):1959-1966. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12923157&dopt=Abstract

Back    Next

  subscribe
  newsletter?

Gerhard Leyendecker